Sign Up    /    Login

Women who missed out on Nobel prizes

I wrote the following blog for our astronomy club’s monthly newsletter.

The season of Nobel prizes is coming soon, in a week or so. It has been more than a century of Nobel prizes for the highest human achievements in the field of Sciences,Literature, Economics and Peace. Some controversies and some supposed misses have occurred in the past. I would like to mention three such cases involving women.

Recently, Anthony Hewish died. He won a Nobel prize in physics in 1974 along with Martin Ryle for the discovery of Pulsars, which are now known as spinning neutron stars. This discovery was made using a Radio telescope. The Radio astronomy group in Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was headed by Martin Ryle. Here Hewish was working with a graduate student Jocelyn Bell. In 1967, it was Bell who discovered a pattern in the data from the radio telescope. She painstakingly looked at a lot of data and firmly established that the data was all coming from an unknown type of astronomical object, a new source of radio signals.

Subsequent discoveries revealed that some massive stars at the end of their lives turn into neutron stars which are very dense objects. Such spinning objects emit radio waves which is what Bell discovered. When time came for awarding a Nobel prize for this discovery, Ryle and Hewish won, leaving Bell out. The Nobel committee never explains their decisions. Fred Hoyle, the famous physicist who came up with the Steady state theory of the Universe, criticized the Nobel committee about the decision to leave Bell out. Was it because she was just a Phd student at the time of discovery ? Was it because of gender inequality ?

Hoyle himself got left out later. Other than steady state theory which he admitted was wrong after the evidence for cosmic background radiation was firmly established and the Big bang theory gained prominence, he did pioneering work for nucleosynthesis which explained how stars including our sun generate energy through nuclear fusion reactions. And how most of the elements in our Universe are formed in the stars. When time came for the awarding of a Nobel prize, Willy Fowler, Hoyle’s collaborator, along with Subramanyan Chandrasekhar received the prize. But not Hoyle. Was it because of his insistence on steady state theory and derision of the Big bang theory ? Was it because of his criticism of the Nobel committee for leaving Bell out earlier?

Henrietta Leavitt was one among a group of women who worked in the Harvard Astronomy department and were known as computers. This was before the actual computers came into the picture. These women analyzed the data and did all the computations by hand to derive conclusions. Leavitt analyzed data from a group of stars known as Cepheids. These stars blink with a certain regularity. She found a relationship between the period of fluctuation and apparent brightness from a group of Cepheids in the Magellanic cloud. By measuring the distance to one such star (through other methods like parallax wherein measuring the position of the same star during different places of the Earth or at different times), a standard candle has been established. The distance of any other Cepheid can be measured by the period of its blinks. Using the same standard candle, Edwin Hubble found that Andromeda is a separate galaxy and is very far away (about 2 million light years).

It is reported that the Nobel committee was very impressed with the discovery of the standard candle and wanted to nominate Leavitt for a Nobel prize. By the time they made their inquiries, she was already dead (died of cancer in 1921). Hubble’s discovery paved the way for other distant galaxies and that they are all moving away from each other. After he died, a Nobel committee member told his widow that Hubble was being considered for a Nobel prize when he died.

The last example is of a chemist whose discovery impacted the life sciences, not astronomy. Rosalind Franklin worked on X-ray crystallography, which uses X-rays to bombard any given substance and then the resulting diffraction is used  to determine the structure of the molecules. In one of her studies, she pictured a double helical shape. Francis Crick and James Watson saw those pictures and they got ideas that the structure of the DNA molecule is similar. She also corrected their model of the DNA molecule. She died of cancer at an early age of 37 in 1956. Watson, Crick and Franklin’s boss Maurice Wilkins won the 1962 Nobel prize for the discovery of DNA structure. While Franklin did a lot of work in other areas like structure of coal and viruses, she did not get any credit for the DNA molecule, which contains the script of life.

I am not interested in speculations, scandals and complaints, but to salute the people who made significant contributions and put them on the same pedestal as their lucky counterparts.

Share with:


5 1 vote
Article Rating

Prasad Ganti

0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Random Posts

Placeholder Image 90

Thewriterfriends.com is an experiment to bring the creative people together on one platform. It is a free platform for creativity. While there are hundreds, perhaps thousands of platforms that provide space for expression around the world, the feeling of being a part of fraternity is often lacking. If you have a creative urge, then this is the right place for you. You are welcome here to be one of us.

Random Posts

Jageshwar group of temples in Uttarakhand

By Namita Sunder | May 26, 2021 | 6 Comments

Cooped inside the four walls for more than a year I miss our Uttarakhand trips a lot. Seasons of snow, clouds, sun-shine continue to slip one by one and I am unable to enjoy the serenity of our favourite mountains. So, I just started re-living our trips. This one is from our trip to Uttarakhand…

Share with:


Read More

Surprised that educated people fall prey to financial fraudsters!

By Suresh Rao | January 4, 2021 | 4 Comments

Representative Image. Most victims of VFSSL fraud were senior citizens of Bangalore & Chennai In yet another case of suspected financial fraud in Bengaluru, several people have registered complaints against Chennai-headquartered Vishwapriya Financial Services Securities Limited (VFSSL), alleging that it has cheated them of lakhs of rupees. Four FIRs have been registered at Siddapura and…

Share with:


Read More

HOW OLD ARE YOU ?

By Ushasurya | September 23, 2021 | 2 Comments

HOW OLD ARE YOU ?g Looking back with nostalgia I recall how easy it was to have pen friends abroad and have regular correspondence with them those days. I wonder if this still happens now, with all this advancement in technology. I mean, having Pen Friends. We did not know what they looked like –…

Share with:


Read More

The Bandish Bandits

By Prasad Ganti | May 22, 2021 | 5 Comments

I recently saw a mini serial titled “Bandish Bandits”. It is based on hindustani classical music. Involving a musical family from Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The music is very enthralling. So are the visuals highlighting the splendors of Jodhpur. The sprawling city amidst historical forts and buildings. Such musicals inspire the way the movies of yesteryears like…

Share with:


Read More

INDIA PM Modi’s 3-day Visit to USA … my musings

By Suresh Rao | September 25, 2021 | 2 Comments

After Joseph (Joe) Biden became President of US in January ’21 (winning a photo finish race for ‘White House’ beating former President Donald Trump,) this is the first time PM Modi of India is making a 3-day visit to US… visiting Washington DC for one-on-one meetings with President Biden, VP Kamala Harris… also heads of…

Share with:


Read More

Railways to remodify Covid Care Centre coaches to transport Vegetables to help Farmers

By Suresh Rao | December 8, 2020 | 3 Comments

ON THIS ‘BHARATH BUNDH’ day (Dec 8th) by Indian Farmers to protest against the 3 Farm Bills recently made into law by the Union Government, the Indian Railways announced that some of the goods carrying Rail Coaches recently modified as COVID CARE CENTERS with better ventilation etc., will be converted into Rail Coaches to carry…

Share with:


Read More

वड़वानल – 20

By Charumati Ramdas | July 26, 2020 | 0 Comments

लेखक: राजगुरू द. आगरकर अनुवाद: आ. चारुमति रामदास 20   गुरु, मदन, खान और दत्त बोस की गतिविधियों पर नजर रखे हुए थे । वह कब बाहर  जाता  है,  किससे  मिलता  है,  क्या  कहता  है ।  यह  सब  मन  ही  मन  नोट  कर रहे थे । ‘‘बोस  आज  दोपहर  को  पाँच  बजे  बाहर  गया  है…

Share with:


Read More

Falling In Love

By Rcay | July 8, 2020 | 2 Comments

   Falling In Love March came with its charms In the form of your photo While July gave us the first sight August made us longing   But we had to wait for September To make our First Night Tired we were by the rituals Yet we did not sleep in the night   As…

Share with:


Read More

Living at Constance Lodge——Part 6

By Navneet Bakshi | September 21, 2021 | 2 Comments

Living at Constance Lodge——Part 6     Remembering Father 18th September 2021   18th September was my father’s death anniversary, so let me write some more of what I remember about him. After listening to the morning news bulletin, he would start getting ready for going to the office. His office was hardly fifteen minutes…

Share with:


Read More

सादोवाया पर बहुत ट्रैफ़िक है

By Charumati Ramdas | September 18, 2020 | 2 Comments

लेखक: विक्टर द्रागून्स्की ; अनुवाद: आ, चारुमति रामदास   वान्का दीखोव के पास एक साइकिल थी। बहुत पुरानी थी, मगर ठीक ही थी। पहले ये वान्का के पापा की साइकिल थी, मगर, जब साइकिल टूट गई, तो वान्का के पापा ने कहा: “वान्का, पूरे दिन क्यों रेस लगाता रहे, ये ले तेरे लिए गाड़ी, इसे…

Share with:


Read More
0
Would love your thoughts, please comment.x
()
x